Научный руководитель: Алиева Д.Т.
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov Russian poet, prose writer, playwright, artist. Lermontov’s work, which combines civic, philosophical and personal motives that meet the urgent needs of the spiritual life of Russian society, marked a new heyday of Russian literature and had a great influence on the most prominent Russian writers and poets of the 19th and 20th centuries. Lermontov’s works received a great response in painting, theater, cinema. His poems became a true storehouse for opera, symphony and romance. Many of them became folk songs. The Lermontov clan came from Scotland. Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov was born on the night of October 15, 1814 in Moscow. The poet’s grandmother Elizabeth Alekseevna Arsenyeva is a noblewoman from the noble Stolypin family. Minister Peter Stolypin is the poet’s second cousin. The powerful and wealthy Elizaveta Arsenyeva did not want for her only daughter a marriage with Yuri Lermontov, a handsome military man from an impoverished family. His dubious descent from the Scotsman George Lermont did not inspire her confidence. Later, the British company Oxford Ancestors denied the poet’s relationship with Lermont using DNA analysis, confirming Arsenyev’s doubts. As predicted by the woman, the personal life of Masha’s daughter, who «jumped out» to marry Yuri Lermontov’s red tape at 16, was unhappy. The husband began to cheat on his young wife almost immediately after the wedding. He started an affair with the German nanny son of Misha, dragged himself around the yard girls. And when the wife reproached her husband for treason, she received a punch in the face. 21-year-old Maria Arsenyeva-Lermontova faded from fleeting consumption, leaving half-orphaned 2-year-old Misha. Elizaveta Alekseevna, who, at the time of her daughter’s death, was 44 years old, took her grandson from her son-in-law, writing Lermontov a bill for 25 thousand rubles. Yuri left the Stolypin family estate, and grandmother took up the education of Misha. The woman adored her grandson and did not spare money for his education and health. Mikhail Lermontov grew up as a sickly scrofulous boy, and my grandmother hired the French doctor Anselm Levy to his grandson. From time to time, an authoritative mother-in-law allowed her father to meet with her son, from which both suffered. The childhood and youthful years of the future classic were held at the Tarkhany estate in the Penza province. Elizaveta Alekseevna hired teachers for his education. Former Napoleonic army officer Frenchman Cape taught the boy French. After the death of the teacher, his place was taken by the emigre Chandro, whom Mikhail Lermontov later described in the poem «Sashka», calling it the Marquis de Tess and «Parisian Adonis». Chandro was replaced by the Englishman Windson, who introduced the young man to English literature. Lermontov’s love for Byron’s work is from a British teacher.Mikhail Lermontov grew up watching village life in a family estate, listening to folk songs and legends about Stepan Razin and Emelyan Pugachev from the peasants. A trip to the Caucasus with his grandmother left a deep imprint on the life and creative biography of Mikhail Lermontov. In Goryachevodsk, a 10-year-old boy fell in love for the first time and after 2 years dedicated the poem «To Genius» to his first muse. In September 1828, Mikhail Lermontov was enrolled in the 4th grade of the capital’s university guesthouse. In December, the boy was transferred to fifth grade, giving a picture and a book for diligence. This year is significant in that Lermontov counted from him the beginning of creativity. In the hostel, the teenager undertook to compose handwritten magazines. In one of them, called «Morning Dawn,» the young poet became the main collaborator and placed the first poem, «The Indian Woman». But two years after the guesthouse was transformed into a gymnasium, Misha left school. In the summer, 16-year-old Mikhail Lermontov spent in the Moscow region, on the Stolypin Serednikovo estate. The relatives of Vereshchagin lived nearby. Lermontov was friends with Alexandra Vereshchagina. The girl introduced Mikhail to her friend, the «black-eyed beauty» Ekaterina Sushkova, whom the young man fell in love with. The feelings of the young poet remained unanswered, he suffered unbearably. Katya chuckled at a lover, awkward and nondescript boy. Later, Sushkova will understand that she made a fatal mistake, mocking the unfortunate young man.In the fall of 1830, Mikhail Lermontov entered Moscow University, choosing a moral and political department. For two years he studied with Vissarion Belinsky, Alexander Herzen and Nikolai Ogarev. In his student years, Lermontov wrote the drama «A Strange Man», which condemned serfdom. Mikhail showed a bold temper and lack of courtesy, for which the teachers recouped on the exams: the young man «failed» the exams. Lermontov refused to stay in his second year and left the university, having moved with his grandmother to Petersburg. An attempt to enter the second year was unsuccessful: Mikhail was offered to start from the first. On the advice of friends and grandmothers, the young man entered the school of guards warrant officers and cavalry junkers, where he studied for two years, calling them «scary» because of the military drill. In St. Petersburg, the previously clumsy and gloomy Mikhail Lermontov was transformed: the young man became the soul of the company, he drew on and drove crazy beauties. The sharp mind, well-read, sarcasm of the young man was noted by friends and high-profile young ladies. In 1835, the poet’s works first appeared in print. Comrade Lermontov, without his knowledge, published the story «Hadji Abrek». From the second half of the 1930s, Mikhail Lermontov’s poems were readily published. Critics and readers warmly received the poem «Song of Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich ...». In the poems «Dagger» («My Iron Friend»), «Poet» and «Duma», Lermontov proclaimed the ideals of civic poetry. The national theme, the Russian character is outlined in the poems Borodino and Rodina. A clear example of romanticism is the poem Sail, first published in Domestic Notes. Reading the lines, the emotional impulses of the 18-year-old poet become clear. During the years of his life in St. Petersburg, Mikhail Lermontov observes the morals of the aristocracy – observations form the basis of the drama «Masquerade», which the poet repeatedly rewrote, but did not break through the wall of censorship. Lermontov’s mature work happened in 1837, after the publication of an angry response to the death of Alexander Pushkin. The poem «Death of the poet», condemning the murderer and the court noble, called Lermontov the culprit of the tragedy, was read by all of Russia. Pushkin’s friends and admirers of his talent greeted the poem with admiration, and enemies, including secular ladies who took the side of the handsome Dantes, were indignant. Having learned about the negative reaction of the world, Mikhail Lermontov added pungency. The first poem ended with the line: «And on the lips of his seal». The sequel was a challenge to the «arrogant descendants»: in the verses they saw an appeal to the revolution. After the poem appeared, a trial and arrest followed. The process was monitored by Emperor Nicholas I. Lermontov’s grandmother and Pushkin’s friends, including Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky, tried to mitigate the fate of Mikhail Lermontov. The rebel was sent into exile in the Caucasus, a warrant officer in the Dragoon regiment. The first link lasted six months, but Lermontov was greatly changed. The picturesque nature of the Caucasus, the life of the highlanders, local folklore were reflected in the works of the «Caucasian» period. But the poet’s youthful gaiety melted, giving way to «black melancholy». After returning to St. Petersburg’s high society, Mikhail Lermontov was in the spotlight: some admire him and others hate him. The Caucasus inspired the poet to write poems conceived and started in Moscow: «Demon» and «Mtsyri» appeared, complementing each other’s compositions. After the link, Mikhail Lermontov brought new works to St. Petersburg, which are printed in every issue of the journal «Patriotic Notes». Mikhail Yuryevich entered the circle of close friends of Pushkin and is at the peak of popularity. He is still impudent and sarcastic. A quarrel with the son of the French ambassador Ernest de Barant in February 1840 ends with a duel. Lermontov and de Barant met for the Black River, not far from the place of the duel between Pushkin and Dantes. Ernest de Barant missed, and Mikhail Lermontov shot to the side. The authorities recognized the duel, the poet was arrested and transferred to a military court. The emperor ordered the duelist to be exiled to the Caucasus for the second time, but now to the army regiment, which fought on the front line. Lermontov distinguished himself by showing courage, but by order of Nicholas I did not receive awards.One of the poet’s last poems – «I Go Alone on the Road» – appeared at the end of May 1841. Critics saw in him the «lyrical result of the quest,» which Mikhail Lermontov addressed at the end of the earthly journey. A few weeks before the assassination, the poet wrote the cliff «Cliff», published 2 years after his death. In St. Petersburg, between the drill, Mikhail Lermontov composed the novel «Vadim», which described the events of the Pugachevsky uprising. The poet, according to the description of a contemporary young lady, did not differ in beauty. He is small in stature, stocky, his black eyes look gloomy, his smile is unkind, he is nervous and looks like a spoiled and vicious child. Three of Lermontov’s main loves were married: Ekaterina Sushkova, whom Mikhail fell in love with 16 years old, Natalya Ivanova, whom he devoted to the Ivanovo Cycle , Varvara Lopukhina, whom the poet loved until the end of his life. Mikhail Lermontov Sushkova brutally avenged 5 years later. Upon learning that the girl was going to marry, he upset the wedding, playing passion and falling in love with Catherine. The bride, compromised in the eyes of the world, suffered for a long time. The history of the tragic relationship recalls the love line of the novel «Hero of Our Time». The poet painfully received the news about the marriage of Varenka Lopukhina. When Varvara got married, Lermontov never called her by the name of her husband – Bakhmeteva: her lover remained for him Lopukhina. Winter 1840-41 was the last for Lermontov. He came on vacation to St. Petersburg, dreaming of retirement and literary work. My grandmother, who dreamed of a grandson’s military career and did not share her hobby for literature, dissuaded Mikhail from submitting a letter of resignation. Lermontov returned to the Caucasus with a disturbing heart. In Pyatigorsk, a fatal quarrel between Mikhail Lermontov and retired major Nikolai Martynov, whom he met in Moscow and even visited his parents’ house. Later, Martynov said that in Pyatigorsk Lermontov did not miss a single case to release the taunts against him. The duel took place on July 27, 1841. Opponents agreed to shoot «before the end». Mikhail Lermontov shot up, and Martynov – point blank, into the enemy’s chest, killing him on the spot. A thunderstorm and heavy rain prevented the doctor from arriving at the place, and the killed poet lay on the ground for a long time. At the funeral of Lermontov, despite the efforts of friends, there was no church rite. In St. Petersburg, the news of the death of the poet was met with the words: «There he is dear». According to the memoirs of Pavel Vyazemsky, the emperor dropped: «The dog is a dog’s death», but after the rebuke of the grand duchess, he went out to those present and proclaimed that «the one who could replace Pushkin with us was killed». Lermontov was buried on July 29, 1841 at the old Pyatigorsk cemetery. But after 250 days, the grandmother of Mikhail Yuryevich obtained the emperor’s permission to transport the body to Tarkhany. In April 1842, the body was buried in a lead coffin in the family chapel, next to his grandfather and mother. The streets, public gardens, libraries in Russia and post-Soviet are named after Mikhail Yuryevich republics.